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It is a safe diagnostic procedure that allows a visual assessment of internal organ damage. An endoscope is a flexible instrument containing a colour video camera. The camera is used to view the inside of the organs and their mucous membranes: the oesophagus, stomach and duodenum, the large intestine when entering rectally, and the nasal passages, trachea and upper bronchi when entering through the nostrils.
It is an examination of the oesophagus, stomach and duodenum. Redness, erosions, ulcers, oedema, necrosis can be observed in the oesophagus. Structural abnormalities of the oesophagus are detected: strictures, formations, hernias, foreign bodies, inflammation. Haemorrhages, ulcers, masses, foreign bodies, gastric parasites or retained food or water may also be observed in the gastric mucosa. Identification of duodenal ulcers, neoplasms, visual assessment of pancreatic and biliary duct openings into the duodenum.
Examination of the colon and anterior small bowel. Performed when there is fresh blood or mucus in the stool and chronic diarrhoea and difficult defecation. Mucosal lesions, structural abnormalities such as formations, intestinal strictures are identified.
An endoscopic examination of the nasopharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, and bronchial biopsy (a piece of bronchial tissue is taken and examined in the laboratory).
The biopsy forceps in the narrow channel of the endoscope are used to take small pieces of mucosa (samples) which are examined histopathologically to evaluate the lesions or tissues.